Sardinia is today divided into the 8 provinces you see on our regions map. We’ll describe them from the most populous region in the south, Cagliari, and work our way north.
The Cagliari Province in the southeast of the island is the most populous, and contains the archaeological site of Nora near the resort of Pula, which contains a well-preserved theater (you can attend concerts there in summer) and thermal baths.
In the past, the province of Carbonia-Igesias was largely devoted to mining coal, lead and zinc. In fact, the city of Carbonia, called “le Citta’ del Duce,” was inaugurated by Mussolini on December 1938 to extract coal in Sardinia; the town still contains a wealth of fascist architecture. The former Serbariu coal mine is now a museum. The mines were closed in the 1970s. Monte Sirai is an impressive hilltop Phoenician-Carthaginian stronghold in the province.
The Medio Campidano is a younger province called the “Green Province” that includes the notable cities of Villacidro, Guspini, Serramanna, San Gavino Monreale, Sanluri. It also contains the famous nuragic complex of Brumini (Su Nuraxi). The Roman baths at Sardara are also worth visiting. Food specialties include civraxu, a large focaccia with a crunchy crust and soft core.
Oristano Province offers the visitor a couple of very fine festivals, Sartiglia in Oristano during carnevale time and l’Ardia di San Costantino in July in the town of Sedilo. The beautiful Tharros Archeological Site sits pretty along the coast, and the Fordongianus site has working Roman Baths. Santa Cristina has a sacred well, the construction of which is amazing to this day.
The province of Oligiastra was established in 2001; its the smallest province and the least populated. Named after the oleaster tree, it’s a wild place offering a beautiful coastline with caves you can visit—and plenty of great beaches.
Heading north we encounter the mountainous Nuoro region, legendary for its bandits, who, it was rumored, could easily jump on and plunder the very slow trains here by horseback or even on foot. The Gennargentu range is the highest and most important range here, and there are many karst caves. The rustic, mountain food is the best in Sardinia, served with pane carasau (music paper bread). The hams from pig or wild boar are excellent, mostly a deep mahogany red, masculine in color and structure compared to the pink and soft Parma hams. Seadas is a big, round raviole stuffed with fresh cheese and deep fried, then covered in honey or sugar.
Sassari province offers the tourist the Spanish flavor of Alghero, the hustle and bustle of the university town of Sassari, and the striking town of Castelsardo, with a medieval castle, the elephant rock which really looks like an elephant, and prehistoric tombs called the Domus di Janas, witches houses. The Nuragic complex of Santu Antine is one of the more famous on the island.
Finally, in the northeast corner of Sardinia we find Olbia Tempio Province. In 1962, the Arab Prince Aga Khan IV created the ‘Costa Smeralda Consortium’ and made the beer along the Costa Smeralda very, very expensive. Many ferries come in through the port of Olbia.